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Anabolic – Androgenic Steroid Information
What are anabolic-androgenic steroids?
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic compounds which are based on the structure of testosterone. Testosterone promotes the development and maintenance of secondary male sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects and the promotion of muscular growth or anabolic effects. Synthetic compounds are created to delay the rapid degradation of the testosterone in blood levels and intensify the anabolic effects, but limiting the androgenic effects. Because of the alterations in the testosterone structure, changes occur in the anabolic and androgenic ratios creating side effects of the drug. To date, no AAS exist which eliminate the androgenic effects while magnifying the anabolic effects (Haff).
Types of AAS
Class I Modifications: Injectable
Class II Modifications: Oral
• Either by absorption through the cheek or swallowed.
• Weaker than Class I, but more prone to causing liver complications.
Class III Modifications: Both Oral & Injectable
AAS can be delivered to the body in several ways:
1.) Oral Consumption
2.) Intramuscular Injections
3.) Transdermal (patches, creams, gels)
4.) Nasal Sprays
5.) Implantable Pellets
Regardless of delivery method, AAS users use dosages larger than medical dosages, and most that use AAS utilize an average of 5 different delivery methods (Haff).
Increases in fat-free mass, muscular size, and muscular strength. However, there is little evidence to support a beneficial role of AAS in other types of exercise performance such as muscular endurance and aerobic performance (Friedl, p. 139).
Scalp hair loss, liver toxicity, jaundice, liver tumors, male infertility, suppression of high density lipoproteins and cholesterol (HDL – aka good cholesterol), gynecomastia (breast tissue development), acne, heart disease, hyper-tension, and myocardial damage (damage to heart muscle) (Friedl, p. 175).
Wellness Center Policies
The UND Wellness Center is a substance-free facility. Users of the facility must agree to take reasonable precautions to prevent the possession or use of alcoholic beverages, illegal drugs, and tobacco products in the wellness center. See the University of North Dakota Code Of Student Life: General University Policies, sections 1-5 and 1-6 for complete policies regarding smoking, alcohol, and drug use (UND Wellness Center Participant Policy Manual, 2010, p. 47).
UND Code of Student Life
UND promulgates standards of conduct prohibiting the unlawful possession, use, or distribution of illicit drugs or alcohol by students and employees on institutional property or as part of any of its activities. For further information, see Section 2-4-E or the Annual Security & Fire Safety Report.
UND will impose penalties for violation of its standards of conduct. As detailed in Section 2-6, these sanctions can include written reprimand, warning probation, conduct probation, suspension, indefinite suspension, and other sanctions (University of North Dakota Code of Student Life, 2013).
ND State Laws
The state of North Dakota has the authority to control (19-03.1-02) all controlled substances which includes anabolic steroids, unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any of the following anabolic steroids:
d. 1-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-ene);
e. 1-androstenediol (3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-ene);
f. 4-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-4-ene);
g. 5-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-androst-5-ene);
h. 1-androstenedione ([5alpha]-androst-1-en-3,17-dione);
i. 4-androstenedione (androst-4-en-3,17-dione);
j. 5-androstenedione (androst-5-en-3,17-dione);
k. Bolasterone (7alpha,17alpha-dimethyl-17beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);
l. Boldenone (17beta-hydroxyandrost-1,4,-diene-3-one);
m. Boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione);
n. Calusterone (7beta,17alpha-dimethyl-17beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);
o. Clostebol (4-chloro-17beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);
q. Delta-1-dihydrotestosterone (also known as '1-testosterone')
r. Desoxymethyltestosterone (17a-methyl-5a-androst-2-en-17ol) (also known as
s. 4-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-androstan-3-one);
t. Drostanolone (17beta-hydroxy-2alpha-methyl-5alpha-androstan-3-one);
u. Ethylestrenol (17alpha-ethyl-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-ene);
v. Fluoxymesterone (9-fluoro-17alpha-methyl-11beta,
w. Formebolone (2-formyl-17alpha-methyl-11alpha,
x. Furazabol (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrostano[2,3-c]-furazan);
z. 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17beta-dihydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one);
aa. 4-hydroxy-19-nortestosterone (4,17beta-dihydroxy-estr-4-en-3-one);
bb. Mestanolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-5-androstan-3-one);
cc. Mesterolone (1alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-[5alpha]-androstan-3-one);
dd. Methandienone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-dihydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3-one);
ee. Methandriol (17alpha-methyl-3beta,17beta-dihydroxyandrost-5-ene);
ff. Methenolone (1-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one);
kk. Methyldienolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyestra-4,9(10)-dien-3-one);
ll. Methyltrienolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyestra-4,9(11)-trien-3-one);
mm. Methyltestosterone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);
nn. Mibolerone (7alpha,17alpha-dimethyl-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);
(17bbeta-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one) (also known as
pp. Nandrolone (17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);
qq. 19-nor-4-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxyestr-4-ene);
rr. 19-nor-4-androstenediol (3alpha,17beta-dihydroxyestr-4-ene);
ss. 19-nor-5-androstenediol (3beta,17beta-dihydroxyestr-5-ene);
tt. 19-nor-5-androstenediol (3alpha,17-beta-dihydroxyester-5-ene);
uu. 19-nor-4-androstenedione (estr-4-en-3,17-dione);
vv. 19-nor-4,9(10)-androstadienedione (estra-4,9(10)-diene-3,17-dione);
ww. 19-nor-5-androstenedione (estr-5-en-3,17-dione);
xx. Norboletheone (13beta,17alpha-diethyl-17beta-hydroxygon-4-en-3-one);
yy. Norclostebol (4-chloro-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);
zz. Norethandrolone (17alpha-ethyl-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);
aaa. Normethandrolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one);
bbb. Oxandrolone (17alpha-methyl-17beta-hydroxy-2-oxa-[5alpha]-androstan-3-one);
ccc. Oxymesterone (17alpha-methyl-4-17beta-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);
ddd. Oxymetholone (17alpha-methyl-2-hydroxymethylene-17beta-hydroxy
fff. Stenbolone (17beta-hydroxy-2-methyl-[5alpha]-androst-1-en-3-one);
ggg. Testolactone (13-hydroxy-3-oxo-13,17-secoandrosta-1,4-dien-17-oic acid
hhh. Testosterone (17beta-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one);
jjj. Trenbolone (17beta-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one);
or any salt, ester, or isomer of a drug or substance described or listed in this subsection, if that salt, ester, or isomer promotes muscle growth, the term does not include an anabolic steroid that is expressly intended for administration through implants to cattle or other nonhuman species and which has been approved by the secretary of health and human services for administration unless any person prescribes, dispenses, possesses, delivers, or distributes for human use (North Dakota State Laws, p. 13-14).
Where to get help?
UND Counseling Center
• Website: und.edu/health-wellness/counseling-center/
• Phone: 701.777.2127
• Location: McCannel Hall, Room 200
How to report abuse of steroids?
Dean of Students: 701.777.2664
University Police Department: 701.777.3491
Grand Forks Police Department: 701.787.8000
1.) Friedl, Karl E. (2000) Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Physical Health. In Yesalis, Charles E. (Ed.) Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. (pp. 175-223). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
2.) Friedl, Karl E. (2000) Effects of Anabolic Steroid Use on Body Composition and Physical Performance. In Yesalis, Charles E. (Ed.) Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise. (pp. 175-223). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
4.) North Dakota State Laws Chapter 19-03.1-09 Schedule III Uniform Controlled Substances Act (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.legis.nd.gov/cencode/t19c03-1.pdf
5.) University of North Dakota Code of Student Life (Aug 2013). Retrieved from http://und.edu/student-affairs/code-of-student-life/_files/codepdfs/appendix/v/v-1.pdf
6.) UND Wellness Center Participant Policy Manual (Dec 2014). Retrieved from http://und.edu/health-wellness/wellness/facility/wcparticipantpolicymanual2014new.pdf