Writing guidelines and style manuals may vary by academic discipline or writing purpose. You are encouraged to follow your unit's designated or preferred style manual and writing guidelines.
It is recommended that you follow the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook for media writing or if your unit does not have a preferred style manual.
Whichever style manual you follow, the most important thing is consistency. Consistency helps to ensure clarity in communication.
Associated Press Stylebook
For media purposes, UND follows the AP Stylebook but has made some exceptions, including:
- Artistic variations or departures from the AP Stylebook for design purposes.
- Websites require special variations as noted in the Web Content Style Guide.
Commonly Used Text Style Guidelines
The format specified by Campus Postal Services for UND addresses does not place a comma between the street and the stop number.
Example: 3264 Campus Road Stop 9021
Campus locations can be designated in either simple or more formal terms: 301 Twamley Hall, 301 Twamley or Twamley 301, or Twamley Hall, Room 301. As more facilities within buildings are named for persons or entities, the room numbers should be included. Examples: ... the Edna Twamley Room (404) in Twamley Hall, or the Page Marketing Center (Room 118) in Gamble Hall.
Do not abbreviate the word "building," especially when it is part of the structure's name (such as the Education Building).
Use advisor. This is an exception to the AP Stylebook.
For the sake of consistency, any UND unit with "and" in its name is encouraged to use the ampersand (&) in place of "and" in all instances.
- Division of Finance & Operations
- College of Arts & Sciences
- Department of Microbiology & Immunology
The ampersand (&) is used when it is part of the formal name of a company, firm or organizations.
- Energy & Environmental Research Center
- Larivee & Light (law firm)
The ampersand may be used in logo creation and as an artistic element in a design exercise, and also in creating charts and lists.
Capitalization in "display" usages (publication covers, advertisements, invitations, etc.) is dictated by what seems appropriate and logical.
Colleges, Departments, Offices, Centers, etc.
Capitalize standing UND units, both as formal names and shortened forms. This departs somewhat from the AP Stylebook. However, the capitalization helps to make it clear that there is a specific UND entity to which you are referring.
- Department of Biology, or the Biology Department
- School of Medicine & Health Sciences, or the UND Medical School
- School of Law, or Law School
- Office of Accounting Services, or Accounting Services (such as "... to discuss billing matters, stop in at Accounting Services in 201 Twamley or call ...")
- Budget Office, or Budget (such as ".... then deliver reports to Budget for further review ...")
- College of Engineering & Mines, or Engineering & Mines
- University Senate Committee on Committees, or the Committee on Committees (presuming that University Senate has been referenced earlier)
Fields of Study
Fields of study, subject areas and academic disciplines in their general sense are not capitalized, except for proper terms such as English, Spanish, German, etc.
- "John Student, a biology major, is examining ..."
- "Andrea Anyone, associate professor of computer science, ..."
- "JoAnn Student, a sophomore majoring in English literature, ..."
- "Paul Pupil completed three courses in history to meet the reqirement ..."
Formal titles are capitalized when used before a name and lower case when used after a name.
- President Robert Kelley, or Robert Kelley, president, ...
- First Lady Marcia Kelley, or Marcia Kelley, first lady of the University, ...
Honorific titles are capitalized; because of length, they are used after the name and only on the first incidence. Subject areas are capitalized because they look awkward when not capitalized.
- Robert Nordlie, Chester Fritz Distinguished Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- Bradley Myers, Randy H. Lee Professor of Law
- Simona Barbu, assistant professor and Burgum Endowed Chair of Cello
Functional or informal titles are not capitalized, even if they precede a name.
- "Investment guru Martin Moneysmart advises ..."
- "According to industry analyst Janelle Jones, the market is poised ..."
- "After debate, committee chair Derek Smith ruled that the motion ..."
The UND Web and Email Address
The "UND" portion of any University of North Dakota Web or email address should be capitalized to help the brand stand out.
Web address format: Write with an uppercase UND and lowercase subdomain; do not use the "www," and do not capitalize any letters after the backslash (/) in the URL.
- Email format: Capitalize all occurrences of UND in the email address; do not capitalize any other letters.
Use chair, and not chairman, chairwoman or chairperson. It usually looks better to use this title after the name. This is a departure from the AP Stylebook.
- Jane Jones, chair of the Biology Department, assigned...
Do not abbreviate days of the week, except as necessary in charts, tables and calendars.
Do not abbreviate March, April, May, June, and July unless necessary for charts and tables.
Months are not abbreviated in text when no specific date is cited. No comma is used.
Examples: January 1989, April 1997, October 2012
When a reference cites both a date and year, commas are used after both the date and year when the text continues.
Example: “The first debate is set for Sunday, February 12, 2012, in the Memorial Union Ballroom.”
A comma is not used between a time and day when citing a specific event.
Example: “The board meeting will be at 3 p.m. Wednesday, March 14, in 303 Twamley Hall.” Do not use “military” dates, such as 27 March 2012. Do not include “nd,” “rd” or “th” on day dates (like 22nd, 23rd, 27th).
Use the apostrophe for the general references: bachelor's degree, master's degree.
Doctoral is an adjective, and doctorate is a noun.
- Bob Smith received his doctoral degree in biology.
- Mary Smith holds a doctorate in geology.
Abbreviations are okay for the first reference for familiar degrees or if in lists
- B.A. = Bachelor of Arts
- M.S. = Master of Science
- Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy
Abbreviations for degrees use periods. Examples: B.A., B.S., M.A. Ph.D., Ed.D.
In the first reference, only use Dr. before the name of an individual holding the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Optometry, Doctor of Osteopathy, or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine. Do not use Dr. in subsequent references, except in direct quotes.
Do not use Dr. before the names of individuals with academic doctorates, except in direct quotes. Do not use degree abbreviations after their names in general text uses.
Do not use Dr. before the names of individuals who hold only honorary doctorates.
- Bluetooth: One word.
- CD, DVD, Blu-ray: Blu is capitalized and there is no "e."
- cellphone, smartphone: One word.
- e-book, e-reader: Hyphenated in the current AP Stylebook.
- e-business, e-commerce: Hyphenated in the current AP Stylebook.
- email: One word with no hyphen. Associated Press has revised its style, which previously used the hyphen (e-mail). UND email addresses capitalize the UND.
- GB, KB, MB: gigabyte, kilobyte and megabyte.
- Google (noun), google (verb)
- home page
- Identity Management (IdM): replace with NDUS User Account
- Internet, Web: Both capitalized in all uses; not interchangeable, as the Web is a subset of the Internet.
- iPad, iPhone, iPod: Lower-case "i" and no hyphen. AP Stylebook has the "I" capitalized when the word starts a sentence or headline. In these situations, try to rewrite it so the word does not start the sentence, or put Apple in front of it.
- mobile phone
- North Dakota University System User Account (use instead of IdM or Identity Management)
- offline, online
- RAM, ROM: Acceptable in all uses for random access memory, read-only memory.
- touch screen (noun, two words), touch-screen (adjective, hyphenated).
- Web page, Web feed: Two words, Web is capitalized.
- website, webcam, webcast, webmaster: One word, not capitalized.
Email Addresses, UND
To help the UND brand stand out, capitalize all occurrences of UND in the email address. Do not capitalize any other letters.
Lowercase, including uses with academic terms and commencement. The spring semester, summer sessions, fall semester. "Display" uses for publication covers, advertisements, etc., may be capitalized, depending on what is logical.
Example: Registration for the 2013 spring semester will open on Nov. 21.
When listing a specific room in a building, capitalize Room and use a number.
- Room 27 in Gamble Hall
- Gamble Hall, Room 27
It is helpful to include room number with descriptive room names.
Example: The reception will be held in the Edna Twamley Room (404), Twamley Hall.
As general text within a sentence, it is preferred to format the telephone number with hyphens, rather than with periods or parentheses.
As stand alone content in advertising and other designs, it is preferred to use periods for aesthetic purposes as they appear more modern and complement the formats of Web and email addresses. The Web Content Standards also recommends the use of periods on the UND website.
Always designate when a number is for a fax machine.
Use a.m. and p.m. in lowercase with periods.
With even hours, there is no need to use the colon mark and 00. Examples: 10 a.m., 4 p.m. In schedules, the colon and 00 may be used if it helps the appearance or clarity.
In designating a time span (such as for a class or meeting) in general text, it is preferable to use the word "to" instead of a dash mark. Examples: 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.; 1:30 to 3:30 p.m.
There is no need to use "12" with noon or midnight.
University of North Dakota
The formal name of the University and its display in the logotype is University of North Dakota. The word "The" was removed from the name. "The" is not capitalized before "University of North Dakota," except when it begins a sentence.
Web Addresses, UND
To help the UND brand stand out, write Web addresses with an uppercase UND and lowercase subdomain. Do not use the "www," and do not capitalize any letters after the backslash (/) in the Web address.