Dr. Grant Tomkinson is a professor of kinesiology at the University of North Dakota (UND) and an adjunct professor of allied health and human performance at the University of South Australia (UniSA). He received his Bachelor of Sports Science (Exercise Science) from the University of New South Wales, and his Bachelor of Applied Science (Honours) and PhD in Human Movement from the UniSA. He is an associate editor for the Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, an executive committee member of the Australian Physical Activity Report Card initiative, the former Chair of Active Healthy Kids Australia, and the former Asia-Pacific Lead for the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance. He was the chief lead investigator for Australia’s 2014 (inaugural) and 2016 Report Cards on Physical Activity for Children and Young People, and the 2015 Progress Report Card on Active Transport for Children and Young People. He is a Young Tall Poppy Science Award winner.
His research interests include the assessment and interpretation of physical fitness, and anthropometry, with a recent focus on the digit ratio. He has over 110 refereed publications, has delivered 47 invited/keynote scientific presentations in 10 countries, and has won US$4.0 million in research funding. Using historical data on over 75 million young people from 50 countries, his research was the first to conclusively show that young people’s aerobic fitness has, in fact, declined worldwide since about 1975 and has plateaued (in high-income countries) since 2000. His research has informed healthy public policy and practice in Australia, Canada, France, the United Kingdom, and the U.S., including the International Olympic Committee’s consensus statement on Fitness and Health of Young People through Sport and Physical Activity.
Fundamentals of Physical Conditioning (KIN 326)
Exercise Testing and Prescription (KIN 446)
Applied Exercise Physiology (KIN 535)
Ex Phys Lab: Anthropometry and Body Composition (KIN 539)
Statistics 1 (EFR 515)
Potter NJ, Tomkinson GR, Dufner TJ, Walch TJ, Roemmich JN, Wilson PB, Fitzgerald JS. Effects of exercise training on resting testosterone concentrations in insufficiently active men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res. 2021 Oct 7. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000004146. Online ahead of print.
Klawitter L, Bradley A, Hackney KJ, Tomkinson GR, Christensen BK, Kraemer WJ, McGrath R. The associations between asymmetric handgrip strength and chronic disease status in American adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2021;6(4):79. DOI: 10.3390/jfmk6040079.
Disterhaupt JW, Fitzgerald JS, Rhoades JL, Tomkinson GR. The relationship between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and vertical jump performance in young athletes. Am J Hum Biol, 2021 Aug 31;e23679. DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23679. Online ahead of print.
Rollo S, Fraser BJ, Seguin N, Sampson M, Lang JJ, Tomkinson GR, Tremblay MS. Health-related criterion-referenced cut-points for cardiorespiratory fitness among youth: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2021 Sep 1. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-021-01537-3. Online ahead of print.
Nevill AM, Tomkinson GR, Lang JJ, Wutz W, Myers TD. How should adult handgrip strength be normalized? Allometry reveals new insights and associated reference curves. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021 Aug 24. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002771. Online ahead of print.
Tomkinson GR, Lang JJ. Kids’ grip strength is improving, but other measures of muscle fitness are getting worse. The Conversation. 2021;26 July. (https://theconversation.com/kids-grip-strength-is-improving-but-other-measures-of-muscle-fitness-are-getting-worse-164295).
Kolose S, Hume PA, Stewart T, Tomkinson GR, Stewart AD, Legg SJ, editors. Three-dimensional physique assessment in the military: New Zealand Defence Force Anthropometry Survey protocols and summary statistics. Auckland: Auckland University of Technology; 2021. ISBN-13: 9780473573287. http://jelckca-bodycomp.com.
Liu Y, Tremblay MS, Tomkinson GR. Temporal trends in step test performance for Chinese adults between 2000 and 2014. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2021;19(4):216–222. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2021.07.001.
Kolose S, Stewart T, Hume P, Tomkinson GR. Cluster size prediction for military clothing using 3D body scan data. Appl Ergon. 2021;96:103487. DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2021.103487.
Johnson N, Bradley A, Klawitter L, Johnson J, Johnson L, Tomkinson GR, Hackney KJ, Stastny S, Ehlers DK, McGrath R. The impact of a telehealth intervention on activity profiles in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot study. Geriatrics (Basel). 2021;6(3):68. DOI: 10.3390/geriatrics6030068.
Kolose S, Stewart T, Hume P, Tomkinson GR. Prediction of military combat clothing size using decision trees and 3D body scan data. Appl Ergon. 2021;95:103435. DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2021.103435.
Kidokoro T, Peterson SJ, Reimer HK, Tomkinson GR. Walking speed and balance both improved in older Japanese adults between 1998 and 2018. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2021;19(3):204–208. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2021.06.001.
Nevill AM, Ramsbottom R, Sandercock G, Bocachica-González CE, Ramírez-Vélez R, Tomkinson GR. Response to the comment by Armstrong and Welsman on ‘developing a new curvilinear allometric model to improve the fit and validity of the 20-m shuttle run test as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults and youth’. Sports Med. 2021;51(7):1595–1597. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-021-01464-3.
Nevill AM, Ramsbottom R, Sandercock G, Bocachica-González CE, Ramírez-Vélez R, Tomkinson GR. Developing a new curvilinear allometric model to improve the fit and validity of the 20-m shuttle run test as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults and youth. Sports Med. 2021;51(7):1581–1589. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-020-01346-0.
Tomkinson GR, Kidokoro T, Dufner T, Noi S, Fitzgerald JS, Brown-Borg HM. Temporal trends in 6-minute walking distance for older Japanese adults between 1998 and 2017. J Sport Health Sci. 2021;10(4):462–469. DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2020.06.007.
Godoy-Cumillaf A, Bizzozero-Peroni B, Tomkinson GR, Brazo-Sayavera J. Physical fitness of Latin America children and adolescents: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2021;11(5):e047122. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047122.
Parker K, Rhee Y, Tomkinson GR, Vincent BM, O’Connor ML, McGrath R. Handgrip weakness and asymmetry independently predict the development of new activity limitations: results from analyses of longitudinal data from the US Health and Retirement Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2021;22(4):821–826. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.11.006.
Debenedictis TA, Billing D, Milanese S, Furnell A, Tomkinson G, Thewlis D. The impact of the mechanical whole-body vibration experienced during military land transit on the physical attributes underpinning dismounted combatant physical performance: a randomised controlled trial. J Sci Med Sport. 2021;24(4):380–385. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2020.09.020.
Tomkinson GR, Kaster T, Dooley FL, Fitzgerald JS, Annandale M, Ferrar K, Lang JJ, Smith JJ. Temporal trends in the standing broad jump performance of 10,940,801 children and adolescents between 1960 and 2017. Sports Med. 2021;51(3):531–548. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-020-01394-6.
McGrath R, Vincent BM, Jurivich DA, Hackney KJ, Tomkinson GR, Dahl LJ, Clark BC. Handgrip strength asymmetry and weakness together are associated with functional disability in aging Americans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2021;76(2):291–296. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glaa100.
Fraser BJ, Rollo S, Sampson M, Magnussen CG, Lang JJ, Tremblay MS, Tomkinson GR. Health-related criterion-referenced cut-points for musculoskeletal fitness among youth: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2021 Aug 2. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-021-01524-8. Online ahead of print.
Pasanen BE, Tomkinson JM, Dufner TJ, Park CW, Fitzgerald JS, Tomkinson GR. The relationship between digit ratio (2D:4D) and muscular fitness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Hum Biol. 2021 Jul 31;e23657. DOI: 10.1002/ajhb.23657. Online ahead of print.
McGrath R, Tomkinson GR, Clark BC, Cawthon PM, Cesari M, Al Snih S, Jurivich DA, Hackney KJ. Assessing additional characteristics of muscle function with digital handgrip dynamometry and accelerometry: framework for a novel handgrip strength protocol. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2021 Jun 21;S1525-8610(21)00517-X. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2021.05.033.
Lang JJ, Smith JJ, Tomkinson GR. Global surveillance of cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness. In: Brusseau TA, Fairclough SJ, Lubans DR, editors. The Routledge handbook of youth physical activity. London: Routledge; 2020:47–68. ISBN-13: 9781138331549.
Vincent BM, Johnson N, Tomkinson GR, McGrath R, Clark BC, Choi B-J. Sleeping time is associated with functional limitations in a national sample of older Americans. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2020;33:175–182. DOI: 10.1007/s40520-020-01524-0.
Pinoniemi BK, Tomkinson GR, Walch TJ, Roemmich JN, Fitzgerald JS. Temporal trends in the standing broad jump performance of United States children and adolescents. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2020;92(1):71–81. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2019.1710446.
Dufner TJ, Fitzgerald JS, Lang JJ, Tomkinson GR. Temporal trends in the handgrip strength of 2,592,714 adults from 14 countries between 1960 and 2017: A systematic analysis. Sports Med. 2020;50:2175–2191. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-020-01339-z.
McGrath R, Tomkinson GR, LaRoche DP, Vincent BM, Bond CW, Hackney KJ. Handgrip strength asymmetry and weakness may accelerate time to mortality in aging Americans. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020;21(12):2003–2007. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2020.04.030.
Smith JJ, Diallo TMO, Bennie JA, Tomkinson GR, Lubans DR. Factors associated with adherence to the muscle-strengthening activity guideline among adolescents. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2020;51:101747. DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2020.101747.
Lee E-Y, Barnes JD, Lang JJ, Silva DAS, Tomkinson GR, Tremblay MS. Testing validity of FitnessGram in two samples of US adolescents (12–15 years). J Exerc Sci Fit. 2020;18(3):129–135. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2020.04.002.
Tomkinson GR, Kidokoro T, Dufner T, Noi S, Fitzgerald JS, McGrath RP. Temporal trends in handgrip strength for older Japanese adults between 1998 and 2017. Age Ageing. 2020;49(4):634–639. DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afaa021.
Dooley FL, Kaster T, Fitzgerald JS, Walch TJ, Annandale M, Ferrar K, Lang JJ, Smith JJ, Tomkinson GR. A systematic analysis of temporal trends in the handgrip strength of 2,216,320 children and adolescents between 1967 and 2017. Sports Med. 2020;50(6):1129–1144. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-020-01265-0.
Wolfe Phillips E, Rao DP, Kaminsky LA, Tomkinson GR, Ross R, Lang JJ. Criterion-referenced mCAFT cut-points to identify metabolically healthy cardiorespiratory fitness among adults aged 18–69 years: An analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020;45(9):1007–1014. DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0874.
DeRouchey JD, Tomkinson GR, Rhoades JL, Fitzgerald JS. Reliability of the Styku 3D whole body scanner for the assessment of body size in athletes. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2020;24(3):228–234. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2020.1791124.
Kaster T, Dooley FL, Fitzgerald JS, Walch TJ, Annandale M, Ferrar K, Lang JJ, Smith JJ, Tomkinson GR. Temporal trends in the sit-ups performance of 9,939,289 children and adolescents between 1964 and 2017. J Sports Sci. 2020;38(16):1913–1923. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1763764.
Tremblay MS, Tomkinson GR. Discussion of “Establishing modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT) cut-points to detect clustered cardiometabolic risk among Canadian children and youth aged 9 to 17 years” — The need for foundational fitness research in Canada: Is there room for innovation? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020;45:344–345. DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2019-0556.
Watson A, Maher C, Tomkinson GR, Golley R, Fraysse F, Dumuid D, Lewthwaite H, Olds T. Life on holidays: study protocol for a 3-year longitudinal study tracking changes in children's fitness and fatness during the in-school versus summer holiday period. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1353. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7671-7.
Lang JJ, Tremblay MS, Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, Tomkinson GR. Review of criterion-referenced standards for cardiorespiratory fitness: what percentage of 1 142 026 international children and youth are apparently healthy? Br J Sports Med. 2019;53(15):953–958. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096955.
Tomkinson GR, Lang JJ, Blanchard J, Léger LA, Tremblay MS. The 20-m shuttle run: Assessment and interpretation of data in relation to youth aerobic fitness and health. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2019;31(2):152–163. DOI: 10.1123/pes.2018-0179.
Fraser BJ, Blizzard L, Tomkinson GR, Lycett K, Wake M, Burgner D, Ranganathan S, Juonala M, Dwyer T, Venn AJ, Olds T, Magnussen CG. The great leap backward: changes in the jumping performance of Australian children aged 11–12-years between 1985 and 2015. J Sports Sci. 2019;37(7):748–754. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1523672.
Tomkinson GR, Lang JJ, Tremblay MS. Temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents representing 19 high- and upper-middle-income countries between 1981 and 2014. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53:478–486. DOI: 1136/bjsports-2017-097982.
Buchan DS, Knox G, Jones AM, Tomkinson GR, Baker JS. Utility of international normative 20 m shuttle run values for identifying youth at increased cardiometabolic risk. J Sports Sci. 2019;37(5):507–514. DOI: 1080/02640414.2018.1511318.
Lamoureux NR, Fitzgerald JS, Norton KI, Sabato T, Tremblay MS, Tomkinson GR. Temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness of 2 525 827 adults between 1967 and 2016: A systematic review. Sports Med. 2019;49(1):41–55. DOI: 10.1007/s40279-018-1017-y.
Tomkinson GR, Wong SHS. Special issue: Global Matrix 3.0: An introduction to the report cards on the physical activity of children and youth from five Asian countries and regions. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2019;17(1):1–2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2018.11.004.
Ulmer JG, Tomkinson GR, Short S, Short M, Fitzgerald JS. Test-retest reliability of TRIMP in collegiate ice hockey players. Biol Sport. 2019;36(2):191–194. DOI: 10.5114/biolsport.2019.84670.
Hoffmann MD, Colley RC, Doyon CY, Wong SL, Tomkinson GR, Lang JJ. Normative-referenced percentile values for physical fitness among Canadians. Health Rep. 2019;30(10):14–22. DOI: 10.25318/82-003-x201901000002-eng.
Tomkinson GR, Lang JJ, Léger LA, Olds TS, Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, Tremblay MS. Response to criticisms of the 20 m shuttle run test: deflections, distortions and distractions. Br J Sports Med. 2019;53(19):1200–1201. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100348.
Tomkinson G, Lang JJ. Kids’ fitness is improving, but they still aren’t as fit as their parents were. The Conversation. 2018;27 March. (http://theconversation.com/kids-fitness-is-improving-but-they-still-arent-as-fit-as-their-parents-were-91533).
Debenedictis TA, Fraysse F, Milanese S, Tomkinson G, Billing D, Furnell A, Thewlis D. The simulation of the whole-body vibration experienced during military land transit. Hum Factors Mech Eng Def Saf. 2018;2:8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41314-018-0015-z.
Klapprodt KL, Fitzgerald JS, Short SE, Manning JT, Tomkinson GR. Relationships between the digit ratio (2D:4D) and game-related statistics in professional and semi-professional male basketball players. Am J Hum Biol. 2018:e23182. DOI: 1002/ajhb.23182.
Lang JL, Wolfe Phillips E, Orpana HM, Tremblay MS, Ross R, Ortega FB, Silva DAS, Tomkinson GR. Field-based measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness to evaluate physical activity interventions. Bull World Health Organ. 2018;96:794–796. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.213728.
Tomkinson GR, Carver KD, Atkinson F, Daniell ND, Lewis LK, Fitzgerald JS, Lang JJ, Ortega FB. European normative values for physical fitness in children and adolescents aged 9–17 years: results from 2 779 165 Eurofit performances representing 30 countries. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52:1445–1456. DOI: 1136/bjsports-2017-098253.
Schranz N, Glennon V, Evans J, Gomersall S, Hardy L, Hesketh KD, Lubans D, Ridgers ND, Straker L, Stylianou M, Tomkinson GR, Vella S, Ziviani J, Olds T. Results from Australia’s 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. J Phys Act Health. 2018;15(Suppl 2):S315–317. DOI: 10.1123/jpah.2018-0418.
Lang JJ, Chaput JP, Longmuir PE, Barnes JD, Belanger K, Tomkinson GR, Anderson KD, Bruner B, Copeland JL, Gregg MJ, Hall N, Kolen AM, Lane KN, Law B, MacDonald DJ, Martin LJ, Saunders TJ, Sheehan D, Stone MR, Woodruff SJ, Tremblay MS. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with physical literacy in a large sample of Canadian children aged 8 to 12 years. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(Suppl 2):1041. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5896-5.
Silva DAS, Lang JJ, Barnes JD, Tomkinson GR, Tremblay MS. Cardiorespiratory fitness in children: Evidence for criterion-referenced cut-points. PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0201048. DOI: 1371/journal.pone.0201048.
Fitzgerald JS, Johnson L, Tomkinson G, Stein J, Roemmich JN. Test-retest reliability of jump execution variables using mechanography: a comparison of jump protocols. J Sports Sci. 2018;36(9):963–969. DOI: 1080/02640414.2017.1346818.
Lowery MR, Tomkinson GR, Peterson BJ, Fitzgerald JS. The relationship between ventilatory threshold and repeated-sprint ability in competitive male ice hockey players. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2018;16(1):32–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesf.2018.03.003.
Lang JJ, Belanger K, Poitras V, Janssen I, Tomkinson GR, Tremblay MS. Systematic review of the relationship between 20m shuttle run performance and health indicators among children and youth. J Sci Med Sport. 2018;21(4):383–397. DOI: 1016/j.jsams.2017.08.002.
Lang JL, Tomkinson GR, Janssen I, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Léger L, Tremblay MS. Making a case for cardiorespiratory fitness surveillance among children and youth. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2018;46(2):66–75. DOI: 1249/JES.0000000000000138.
Lang JJ, Tremblay MS, Léger L, Olds TS, Tomkinson GR. International variability in 20 m shuttle run performance in children and youth: who are the fittest from a 50-country comparison? A systematic literature review with pooling of aggregate results. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(4):276. DOI: 1136/bjsports-2016-096224.
Lamoureux NR, Tomkinson GR, Peterson BJ, Fitzgerald JS. Relationship between skating economy and performance during a repeated-shift test in elite and subelite ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res. 2018;32(4):1109–1113. DOI: 1519/JSC.0000000000002418.
Dyer M, Short SE, Short M, Manning JT, Tomkinson GR. Relationships between the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and game-related statistics in semi-professional female basketball players. Am J Hum Biol. 2018;30(1):e23070. DOI: 1002/ajhb.23070.
Tomkinson GR, Dyer M. Finger size does matter… in sports. The Conversation. 2017;4 September. (https://theconversation.com/finger-size-does-matter-in-sports-82876).
Wheeler L, Tomkinson GR. Treating muscular soft tissue injury. Australian Doctor. 2017;1 June. (https://pharmacynews.com.au/therapy-update/treating-muscular-soft-tissue-injury).
Tomkinson GR, Lang JJ, Tremblay MS, Dale M, Leblanc AG, Belanger K, Ortega FB, Léger L. International normative 20 m shuttle run values from 1 142 026 children and youth representing 50 countries. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51(21):1545–1554. DOI: 1136/bjsports-2016-095987.
Tomkinson JM, Tomkinson GR. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and muscular strength in adolescent boys. Early Hum Dev. 2017;113:7–9. DOI: 1016/j.earlhumdev.2017.07.013.
Ross KJ, Tomkinson GR, McGregor B, Ayres OC, Piscitelli D. Addition of the apical oblique projection increases the detection of acute traumatic shoulder abnormalities in adults. Emerg Radiol. 2017;24(4):329–334. DOI: 1007/s10140-017-1483-9.
Dale MJ, Coates AM, Howe PRC, Tomkinson GR, Haren MT, Brown A, Caldow M, Cameron-Smith D, Buckley JD. No effect of a whey growth factor extract during resistance training on strength, body composition, or hypertrophic gene expression in resistance-trained young men. J Sports Sci Med. 2017;16(2):230–238. PMCID: PMC5465985.
Frick NA, Hull MJ, Manning JT, Tomkinson GR. Relationships between digit ratio (2D:4D) and basketball performance in Australian men. Am J Hum Biol. 2017;29(3):e22937. DOI: 1002/ajhb.22937.
Tomkinson G, Daniell, N, Fulton A, Furnell A. Time changes in the body dimensions of male Australian Army personnel between 1977 and 2012. Applied Ergon. 2017;58:18–24. DOI: 1016/j.apergo.2016.05.008.
Doctor of Philosophy (Human Movement). University of South Australia (2004)
Bachelor of Applied Science (Honours 1). University of South Australia (1999)
Bachelor of Sports Science (Exercise Science) (Merit). University of New South Wales (1998)