My research deals with identification and utility of recursive co-mimicry among physical education students, as well as the non-linear dynamics of motor pattern development. I believe that some of the core concepts within non-conscious mimicry can be used as a naturally occurring pathway for learning within physical education. Additionally, I think that it can be used as a platform for the development of novel instructional strategies.
At this point, I am attempting to replicate several of the seminal mimicry studies from social psychology. The replication studies would be conducted within the gymnasium, to provide ecological validity within my field. Mainly, I would like to confirm factors that would give the best opportunities for students to achieve high levels of on-task mimicry with paired partners during skill practice.
At this point, I have been attempting to identify and quantify mimicry among students within physical activity based learning environments. I have had some success employing optical flow analysis for capturing spontaneous synchronization among serial tasks, like basketball dribbling. However, I would like to identify mimicry of discrete skills and determine the directionality of the imitation, within a physical activity based learning environment.
My focus, and what I believe will have the most direct practical implication for in-service teachers is the identification of co-mimicry; that is a continued recursive pattern of mimicry between a pair of students. Through this research, I want to provide teachers with a strategy to amplify co-mimicry among students. The reason for my emphasis on co-mimicry is that fundamentally if we could get two students to co-mimic each other, and continue to do this over a prolonged period, I believe that we could foster the emergence of beneficial motor patterns and thus increase psychomotor learning achievement for these paired students. This belief is based upon the improbability of perfect replication of any given movement through mimicry. Essentially, each student within a co-mimicry entrainment would be creating some errors in their unconscious attempted imitation; some of these errors would then be incorporated in the co-mimicry product. Over the course of a practice session, the pairing would accumulate errors. Through a dynamic systems perspective, we could hypothesize, that beneficial mistakes would be amplified, while non-beneficial mistakes would subsequently be dampened and lost, resulting in an overall useful amplified product of the co-mimicry partnership.
Through ongoing research, in partnership with international experts, I am attempting to be one of the first pedagogical researchers within kinesiology to identify, construct, and deploy instructional techniques, which rely on these novel notions. Additionally, this line of inquiry has led to a unique pairing of Pedagogical as well as Biomechanical research methods. This pairing has led to the development of a novel research Laboratory: the BiPed lab, which is located in Hyslop sports center on the University of North Dakota Campus. This research laboratory utilizes state of the art motion capture in concert with innovative pedagogical thought.
KIN 410: Secondary Methods in Physical Education
KIN 410L: Secondary Methods in Physical Education Lab
KIN 305: Health/PE for ECE/Elementary Education teachers
KIN 494: Directed Studies Research in PXW
KIN 198: Practicum in Coaching
KIN 420: Physical Education Curriculum
KIN 242: Introduction to Kinesiology
KIN 355: Applied Motor Development
KIN 491: Senior Capstone
KIN 501: Research Methods
KIN 332: Biomechanics
- Complexity Theory
- Dynamic Systems Theory
- Non-conscious Mimicry
- Spontaneous Synchronization
- Recursive Co-Mimicry
- Learning in Physical Education
- Subverting the Dominant Paradigm
Rhoades, J. L., & Hopper, T. (2020). Reciprocal recursive nonconscious behavior mimicry, PE groupings, and modification-by-adaptation. Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, 11(2), 145-162.
Rhoades & Hopper (2020) --- Video
Schwenzfeier. A., Rhoades, J.L., Whitehead, J., Short, M. & Fitzgerald, J. (2020). Increased sprint performance with false step in collegiate athletes trained to forward step. Sports Biomechanics, 1-8.
Rhoades, J. L., & Hopper, T. (2019). Reciprocal recursive nonconscious behavior mimicry, PE groupings, and modification-by-adaptation. Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, 1-18.
Graber, K. C., Woods, A. M., Killian, C. M., Richards, K. A. R., & Rhoades, J. L. (2019). My, how you have changed, PETE: An updated demographic profile of US teacher education faculty. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 1, 1-12.
Rhoades, J.L., Woods, A. M., Fitzgerald, J., Trendowski, T., & Ellison, D., (2019) U.S. Voluntary Advanced Teacher Certification: Towards the Dakar notion of EFA. International Journal of Teacher Development, 23(5), 549-565.
Southard, K. J., Rhoades, J. L., Whitehead, J. R., & Walsh, T., (2018). A Signage Intervention Decreased Inactive Study Breaks in College Students. American Journal of Health Studies. 33(1).
Rhoades, J. L., & Hopper, T. F. (2017). Utilizing Student Socio-coordinated Mimicry: Complex Movement Conversations in Physical Education. Quest, 1-17.
Barry, A., Rhoades, J., Fitzgerald, D., Caine, D., Dalin, D., & Walsh, T. (2017) Effect of Sedentary and Physical Activities on Children’s Food Choice. International Journal of Exercise Science. 10(5): 702-712.
Rhoades. J.L., Woods. A, Daum, D. (2016). JTPE: A 30-Year Retrospective of Published Research. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 35(1). 4-15.
Rhoades, J. L., & Woods, A. (2015). Repertoire networks among national board- certified physical education teachers. Professional Development in Education, 41(3), 1 16.
Rhoades. J.L. & Hastmann, T. (2014). The Development of the NEXSS Observational Instrument. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science.18 (1), 53-71.
Woods, A. M. & Rhoades. J. L. (2013). Teaching Efficacy Beliefs of National Board Certified Physical Educators. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 65(1), 44-56.
Rhoades. J.L. & Rhoades. R.S. (2013). Complexity of Online Discussions. Journal of Online Teaching and Learning.9(1), 68-79.
Rhoades. J. L. & Woods, A. M. (2013). Self-Organized Communities of Practice inPhysical Education. Quest. 65(1), 44-56.
Woods, A.M. & Rhoades. J.L. (2012). National board certified physical educators: Perceptions of certification impacts. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 83(2), 235–244.
Rhoades. J. L. & Woods, A.M. (2012). National Board Certified Physical Education Teachers Task Presentations and Learning Environments. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 31(1), 4-20.
Graber, K., Erwin, H., Woods, A., Rhoades, J. & Zhu, W. (2011). A national profile of teacher education faculty: The construction of an online survey. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 15(4), 245-256.
Woods, A. M. & Rhoades. J. L. (2010). National board certified physical educators: Background characteristics, subjective warrants, and motivations. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29, 312–331.
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL August 2010
Ph.D. – Pedagogical Kinesiology
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, December, 2006
M.A. – Exercise Science
Indiana State University, Terre Haute, May, 2002
B.S. – Physical Education Teaching
Parkland Community College, Champaign, IL May, 1999
A.S. – Physical Education